Antennas and wave propagation

Higher education teachers: Vidmar Matjaž
Credits: 6
Semester: winter
Subject code: 64240

Subject description


General knowledge of the following:

  • Fundamentals of electrical engineering 1,2
  • Mathematics 1,2,3,4
  • Electrodynamics

Content (Syllabus outline):

Half-wave dipole, implementation of a directional antenna, Fraunhofer far field criteria, basic measurements of antenna parameters. Huygens source, antenna apertures, design of horn antennas, square phase error, phase-error correction with a collimating lens, lenses from artificial dielectrics, slow-wave structures. Parabolic mirror, computation of its focal point, selection of the section, mirror illumination, illumination efficiency, multiple-reflector antennas: Gregorian and Cassegrain. Antenna arrays and their design, array feeding networks, electrical array steering. Polarization of electromagnetic waves, definition of the antenna polarization, accounting for polarization mismatch in a radio link. Thermal noise, antenna noise temperature, natural noise sources on Earth and in the universe. Fresnel zones, propagation of radio waves in the presence of natural obstacles, mirrors and diffractors, radar cross-section, radar range equation. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's atmosphere, absorption, refraction and reflection in the troposphere. Signal fading and channel distortion, fading statistics, link-failure probability, transmit and receive diversity.

Objectives and competences:

Learning fundamental antenna characteristics. Learning directional antenna design. Learning radiation from distributed sources and thermal noise. Learning electromagnetic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and in the presence of obstacles. Learning reception fading and related countermeasures.

Intended learning outcomes:

Knowledge of free-space communications, related terminal equipment (antennas) and propagation-path effects.

Learning and teaching methods:

Lectures to explain the theoretical background and laboratory experiments to practically confirm the theory in the spirit of team work.

Study materials


  1. J. D. Kraus, Antennas, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950.

Study in which the course is carried out

  • 1 year - 2nd cycle - Electrical Engineering - Information and Communication Technologies